Vol. 22 Núm. 3 (2020)
Artículo original

Aislamiento de bacterias con potencial biorremediador y análisis de comunidades bacterianas de zona impactada por derrame de petróleo en Condorcanqui (Amazonas, Perú)

Rosita T. Castillo Rogel
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Piura, Perú
Biografía
Francis J. More Calero
Empresa de investigación y capacitación en Biotecnología Molecular, IncaBiotec, Tumbes, Perú
Melitza Cornejo La Torre
Cooperativa de trabajadores Biotecoop, Lima, Perú
Jaime N. Fernández Ponce
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Piura, Perú
Eric L- Mialhe Matonnier
Empresa de investigación y capacitación en Biotecnología Molecular, IncaBiotec, Tumbes, Perú

Publicado 2020-09-04

Palabras clave

  • agua,
  • bacterias,
  • hidrocarburos,
  • metagenómica,
  • suelo

Cómo citar

Castillo Rogel, R. T., More Calero, F. J., Cornejo La Torre, M., Fernández Ponce, J. N., & Mialhe Matonnier, E. L.-. (2020). Aislamiento de bacterias con potencial biorremediador y análisis de comunidades bacterianas de zona impactada por derrame de petróleo en Condorcanqui (Amazonas, Perú). Revista De Investigaciones Altoandinas, 22(3), 215–225. https://doi.org/10.18271/ria.2020.656

Resumen

El uso del petróleo y sus derivados se ha visto intensificado por la alta demanda energética actual; esto ha traído consigo el incremento de accidentes ambientales como los derrames de combustibles que afectan negativamente los ecosistemas. En estos ambientes existen microrganismos capaces de sobrevivir a dichas condiciones y utilizar los hidrocarburos de petróleo como fuente de carbono y energía; siendo propuestos en la biorremediación con un enfoque ecoamigable y costo-efectivo. En este trabajo se aislaron e identificaron cepas bacterianas con potencial biorremediador en medios de cultivo suplementados con petróleo, a partir de una zona contaminada por derrame de petróleo en la Amazonía peruana; también se realizó la caracterización de la comunidad bacteriana por análisis independiente de cultivo mediante secuenciamiento de próxima generación dirigido al gen ARNr 16S. Las cepas bacterianas aisladas se identificaron como: Acinetobacter rudis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Morganella morganii, Proteus hauseri, Proteus terrae, Proteus vulgaris (2), Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas moraviensis, Pseudomonas prosekii y Serratia marcescens (2). En el análisis independiente de cultivo detectaron los filos Proteobacteria y Bacteroidetes como predominantes en agua y suelo contaminados con hidrocarburos; así mismo, la asignación taxonómica a nivel de familia destacó los grupos Flavobacteriaceae, Moraxellaceae, Verrucomicrobia y Acetobacteraceae como más abundantes, además de los géneros Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium y Geobacter presentes en ambas muestras. De esta manera, se determinaron los principales grupos implicados en la degradación de hidrocarburos haciendo uso de técnicas dependientes e independientes de cultivo.

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