Vol. 22 Núm. 3 (2020)
Artículo breve

Extracción y caracterización química del aceite esencial de eucalipto obtenido por microondas y ultrasonido

Diana Nolazco Cama
Departamento de Tecnología de alimentos y productos agropecuarios, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú
Elizabeth Villanueva-Quejia
Departamento de Tecnología de alimentos y productos agropecuarios, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú
Beatriz Hatta Sakoda
Departamento de Tecnología de alimentos y productos agropecuarios, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú
Lena Téllez Monzón
Departamento Académico de Química, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú

Publicado 2020-09-04

Palabras clave

  • aceite esencial,
  • eucaliptol,
  • 1,8 cineol,
  • microondas libre de solventes,
  • ultrasonido

Cómo citar

Nolazco Cama, D., Villanueva-Quejia, E., Hatta Sakoda, B., & Téllez Monzón, L. (2020). Extracción y caracterización química del aceite esencial de eucalipto obtenido por microondas y ultrasonido . Revista De Investigaciones Altoandinas, 22(3), 274–284. https://doi.org/10.18271/ria.2020.661

Resumen

La extracción por microondas libre de solventes y la asistencia con ultrasonido, como tecnologías emergentes ofrecen ventajas en la extracción de aceites esenciales, siendo importante la investigación del efecto sobre el rendimiento y la composición del aceite esencial. Se evaluó la influencia de la humedad de las hojas y potencia de extracción sobre el rendimiento del aceite esencial de eucalipto extraído por microondas libre de solventes, y una comparación con la asistencia con ultrasonido. La extracción se realizó por microondas a 300 y 600 watts, a 70, 80 y 90% de humedad en las hojas, seleccionando la potencia que evidenció mayor rendimiento del aceite esencial. Posteriormente, se evaluó el efecto del ultrasonido a 180 watts, 40kHz por 15 minutos sobre el rendimiento y la composición química. Se identificaron los analitos obtenidos por ambos métodos de extracción, mediante cromatografía de gases acoplado a un espectrómetro de masas (CG-EM). El mayor rendimiento (0,55%) se obtuvo a 600 watts y 90% de humedad mediante microondas. La asistencia con ultrasonido incrementó a 0,80% el rendimiento y 17 analitos adicionales en el aceite esencial. Se identificó como componente mayoritario al eucalipto l o 1,8-cineol, encontrado en 42,43% y 37,15% correspondiente a la extracción con microondas libre de solventes y microondas con asistencia de ultrasonido.

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