Vol. 23 Núm. 3 (2021):
Artículo de revisión

La trucha (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Potenciales productos alimenticios derivados del principal recurso acuícola en regiones altoandinas

Marco Antonio Florez-Jalixto
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AGRARIA LA MOLINA

Publicado 2021-08-28

Palabras clave

  • Innovación,
  • pescado reestructurado,
  • procesamiento de alimentos,
  • tecnología alimentaria,
  • acuicultura

Cómo citar

Florez-Jalixto, M. A. ., & Roldán-Acero, D. J. . (2021). La trucha (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Potenciales productos alimenticios derivados del principal recurso acuícola en regiones altoandinas. Revista De Investigaciones Altoandinas, 23(3), 159–170. https://doi.org/10.18271/ria.2021.279

Resumen

La trucha fue introducida en nuestro país en 1928 y logró adaptarse a los ecosistemas dulceacuícolas de la sierra peruana. Actualmente representa el sustento económico de muchos acuicultores de la micro y pequeña empresa junto con la mediana y gran empresa de regiones como Puno, Pasco, Huancavelica y Junín, cuyo crecimiento en los últimos años ha sido considerable. El 71,98% de este recurso fue destinado para su consumo en estado fresco y solo el 28,02% fue procesado como congelado, lo que evidencia la poca diversificación de productos con valor agregado en la cadena productiva de esta especie dulceacuícola junto a una escasez de investigaciones. Por ello, el propósito de esta investigación fue recopilar los últimos estudios, realizados en distintos países, relacionados con el procesamiento de esta especie debido a que es una excelente materia prima por su valor nutritivo y características tecnofuncionales. Los trabajos de investigación recopilados abarcaron el uso de métodos y tecnologías tradicionales como marinado, salado, secado y ahumado, y también procesos innovadores de reestructuración aplicados al músculo picado de trucha y subproductos del fileteado. Dichas investigaciones encontraron que los distintos productos alimenticios se diferenciaron por sus atributos físicos y sensoriales, propiedades tecnofuncionales, vida útil y/o preparación. Con esta revisión, se espera aportar al modelo de triple hélice enfocado a este recurso, desde y para los andes, para promover su producción sostenida, cadena productiva y seguridad alimentaria de los habitantes de las regiones andinas.

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